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R&D 2011 . 49,5 .

    R&D  2011 .    49,5  ., , R&D, ,
R&D 2011 . 49,5 .

R&D (Pharmaceutical Research andManufacturers ofAmerica PhRMA) 2011 . 49,5 . . R&D- ﳿ . , , (Tufts University Center fortheStudy ofDrug Development), 94% . , R&D-. , R&D 2011 ., . , (National Science Board oftheNational Science Foundation) 20% R&D . PhRMA, 2011 . 21,1%.

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